Breast cancer metastasis is a very common type of cancer in women that develops due to out of control growth of tissues in breasts. Breast is made up of three major cell lobules, ducts, and connective tissues. Cancer depends upon which cell cause breast cancer.
Breast Cancer: Practice to Save Your Life, Healthy, Instructions, Treatment
Breast cancer can be found in women and mans both but its most common in women and rear in men. There are about 3.8 million breast cancer survivors in the U.S. 15.2% of all new cancer cases in the U.S represents female breast cancer
There are several breast cancer metastasis diagnoses tests
Breast self-examination is an easy way to check if there is any thickness, changes in the shape of the breast and feel you can feel both breasts by regularly examing breasts on your own. In the breast self-examination, you stand in the front of the mirror and look if there are any changes in shape or appearance of the breast or you can perform another step also It’s very easy as you can do this technique at home lay down and then feel changes in your breasts with help of middle three fingers. Mostly changes are detected during self-exam some changes are not harmful but some can be very serious such as cancer.
In a biopsy, a sample of tissue or cells is taken from the body to analyze it more closely in the lab. A piece of skin, piece of tissue, doubtful tumor or organ is removed surgically that depends on your situation and sent to the lab for testing purposes. A biopsy is mostly a completely pain-free and low-risk procedure.
Why biopsy is needed
The biopsy is maybe necessary to check the abnormality of cells that cause cancer. The biopsy is often used to diagnose cancer but it may be helpful in other cases such as infections, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Whenever there is a medical question biopsy can be helpful to answer it. for example, it can be helpful in the treatment of cancer, Infections for example lymph nodes, Inflammation for example liver hepatitis and various skin diseases.
Types of biopsy
There are many types of biopsies. Almost in every type of biopsies, sharp tools are used to remove a small amount of tissues. Numbing medicines are applied first if the biopsy is on the skin or other sensitive areas. Here are some types of biopsy
- Needle biopsy The type of biopsy in which needle is used to judge the doubtful tissue. Most biopsies have belonged to this type.
- CT-guided biopsy In this type the biopsy is done with the help of CT-scanner. The person rests in CT-scanner and image is produced on the scanner which helps doctor that is helpful for doctors to determine the exact position of the needle in the targeted tissue.
- Ultrasound-guided biopsy In an ultrasound-guided biopsy, the biopsy is done with the help of sound waves that are helpful to locate the position of lump or abnormality. doctor direct needle into the lump or wound with the help of an ultrasound scanner.
- Bone biopsy In bone biopsy a sample of bone is removed to find out if there is any cancer or abnormal cells. A bone biopsy may be done with the help of a CT scan technique or by an orthopedic surgeon.
- Bone marrow biopsy In a bone marrow biopsy sample of bone marrow is taken with the help of a large needle to check if tissues are healthy and the production of blood cells is normal.
- Liver biopsy In this type of biopsy the tissue is taken from the liver with the help of needle to diagnosed the many disorders and diseases of the liver.
- A kidney biopsy is similar to liver biopsy. In kidney biopsy, the tissues of the liver are removed for the diagnosis of different kidney diseases in the lab.
- Aspiration biopsy In aspiration biopsy the tissues from concern area are collected with the help of a thin needle and it is helpful for the diagnosis of diseases such as cancer.
- Prostate biopsy In a prostate biopsy sample of tissues from the prostate is removed to determine if there is any cancer in the prostate.
- Skin biopsy In a skin biopsy doctor removes a piece of your skin for testing purposes. Skin biopsy is helpful in diagnosing many diseases such as skin cancer, skin infections, and other skin disorders.
- Surgical biopsy is needed for tissues that are hard to reach. Surgical biopsy is a procedure that involves surgical removal of tissue from the area of concern or lump for examination purposes in the lab.
Breast Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Breast MRI is a technology in which powerful magnetic and radio waves are used to produce a detailed cross-sectional image of the inside breast on a computer monitors. Mostly breast MRI is performed when the biopsy is positive for cancer and doctor need more information about your disease. MRI is used as an additional tool for breast screening with ultrasound or mammography. In MRI there is no radiation involved in it and it is an amazing way to check if silicone breast implant has ruptured. We can get information about many breast diseases that can be very helpful and cannot be obtained by other methods such as ultrasound and mammography.
Blood cell counts
Your doctor may ask you for blood cell counts before or during treatment to check whether the amount of different blood cells in the body is normal. The level of important blood cells can be reduced which your body needs to function properly because of cancer and treatment of cancer such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Typically measurement of blood cell:
- White blood cells which function like immune system cells that protect your body from foreign substance and invaders. If the level of white blood cells is low then there is a high risk of infections.
- Red blood cells that transport body-wide oxygen. An iron-rich protein found red blood cells that carries the oxygen to the lungs to the rest of the body called hemoglobin. A test will be done to measure the level of hemoglobin. A low level of hemoglobin can cause anemia. To measure the level of hematocrit another test is done which is the small part of a total volume that consists of red blood cells.
- Platelets are the cells that help your blood to form clots and stop bleeding.
Blood cell count may be useful before treatment begins to check whether you have any other disease such as anemia that needs to be treated first.
In this technique, high-frequency sound waves are sent to your breasts and then convert them into the image on the viewscreen. There is no radiation involved in it. Ultrasound is not used om its own as a breast cancer metastasis screening test. It is used to complement other screening tests. If there is any abnormality felt by physical exam or detected on mammography then ultrasound is the best technique to check out if the abnormality is solid or fluid-filled. However, it cannot help in detecting whether the lump is cancerous or not and it cant help also in detecting the classifications.
Ultrasound is also helpful to guide biopsy needle exactly to doubtful areas in the breast.
The bone scan is an imaging test that is often used to check if your breast cancer spread to bones or not. This technique is also known as bone scintigraphy. It is useful to identify changes in bones caused by injury, healing or disease such as cancer. This technique starts with the inject of radioactive substance into your body mostly in the arm, two or three hours before the scan. It helps to identify changes in bones which is also known as the hot spot.
If parents diagnosed with breast cancer then the risk of breast cancer increased for their children as genes passed on directly from parents. According to studies about 5% to 10% of breast cancer cases caused due to this factor. An inherited mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene are commonly responsible for inherited breast cancer. In the case of normal cells when DNA is damaged these genes help to make such proteins that can repair damaged DNA, on the other hand, the mutated type of this gene causes abnormal growth of cells which can cause cancer.
A genetic test is done to check if there is any mutation in your DNA that increases your risk of cancer.
Positron emission tomography (PET)
PET positron emission tomography produces an image of the body’s cell which can be helpful in detecting the area of concern. First, a substance made up of sugar and a small amount of radioactive material is injected into the body. Cancer cells absorb more radioactive sugar because they are more active than normal cells. Then a special camera is used to scan the body to pick any concerned area on the screen of the computer.
PET scans are not used to screen breast cancer. This technique is used to detect small tumors because of its limited ability however, it can be helpful for judge the disease after breast cancer has already been diagnosed in different ways such as
- To check if cancer has spread to lymph nodes.
- To check if cancer has spread to other body parts and if so, where.
- To evaluate if invasive breast cancer responding to treatment.
PET scans are expensive therefore they are available in a few centers. Generally, they are used to check whether cancer spread beyond the breast when the doctor has reason to believe that.
IHC Test (ImmunoHistoChemistry)
IHC is a special process performed on breast cancer tissue which is removed during a biopsy. These tissues are in frozen or in fresh form. IHC is used to check whether cancer cells have HER2 receptors of hormone receptors on their surface. It plays a critical role in treatment.
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